Wednesday 19 July 2023

PlasticsFuture 2023

At the end of June, I attended a fascinating conference held at the University of Portsmouth. PlasticsFuture 2023 was convened over three days and brought together speakers from across the world to present their research around, and experiences of, plastics pollution. The team behind the conference are part of Revolution Plastics, an interdisciplinary research group based at the University. The group is an initiative drawing together colleagues from across the University of Portsmouth and assembling teams of researchers, business-leaders, campaigners, and citizens who share their commitment and ambition to transform the way we make, use, and dispose of plastic and prevent pollution. From developing sustainable fashion, to combatting microplastics, they are putting their research into practice, and addressing plastics pollution; generating a globally-relevant community of plastics researchers and contributing to the sustainable transition of the city of Portsmouth as a prototype and showcase for a sustainable plastics future.

Revolution Plastics, University of Portsmouth. Image: Louise Dennis

The three days were split into 6 sessions:

  • Session 1: Microplastics - detection, transport and impacts for environmental and human health
  • Session 2: Exploring the current issues of plastic use within the context of fashion and textiles and the role of plastics in the future
  • Session 3: Plastic pollution in the Global South
  • Session 4: The Plastics That Made Us
  • Session 5: Creative Solutions to Global Challenges
  • Session 6: Tackling plastic pollution: Global Change Perspectives

Session 1: Microplastics - detection, transport and impacts for environmental and human health

Description: Microplastics are everywhere in our lives, in the food we eat and the air we breathe. As research on microplastics gathers pace, it is becoming apparent that microplastics may impact human health and we need to understand how to limit our exposure.

There are currently many projects and policies looking at how to reduce plastic use in packaging but less understanding on how this will impact microplastic numbers. This session will take a closer look at the challenges and discuss possible solutions.

  • Methods of analysis - including data collection
  • Citizen science
  • Microplastics in water, land and air
  • Microplastics human health implications
Introduction: Dr Fay Couceiro, University of Portsmouth

Keynote: Dr Ben Williams, Senior Research Fellow, Air Quality Management Resource Centre, University of the West of England

Short talks by:
  • Dr Sakcham Bairoliya, Nanyang Technological University - The Big Picture: Microbial interactions within the plastisphere
  • Delphine Ciréderf Boulant, Institut de Recherche Dupuy de Lôme (IRDL) UMR CNRS 6027 - Assessment of microplastic contamination of organic fertilisers applied to agricultural soils
  • Nia Jones, Bangor University - Simulating the impact of estuarine fronts on microplastic concentrations in well-mixed estuaries
  • Pei-Chen Lin & Yin-Yi Chen, Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Taiwan University - Assessment of microplastics exposure from oral pathway in young adults: a pilot study in Taiwan
  • Miguel A. Gomez Gonzalez, Diamond Light Source Ltd -Understanding how microplastics can act as transportation vectors of co-existing nano pollutants and their interaction within environmental solutions
  • Dr Chunlei Fan, Morgan State University - Effect of High-Density Polyethylene Microplastics on Growth and Survival of Eastern Oyster Larvae in the Chesapeake Bay, USA
  • Dr Judy Lee, Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Surrey - Nano/Microplastic induced membrane fouling and potential mitigation strategies
University of Portsmouth are using the GB Row Challenge to monitor microplastics. Teams of rowers, including former Olympic athletes, row around the British Isles, taking on complex tides and changeable British weather. The rowing boats are equipped with specialist equipment to gather scientific data throughout their journey.  Researchers then use this data to assess the environmental damage and long term impact of pollutants on our seas and oceans.  Image: Louise Dennis

Session 2: Exploring the current issues of plastic use within the context of fashion and textiles and the role of plastics in the future

Description: An opportunity to discuss current issues of plastic use within the context of fashion and textiles. Each year, the industry uses 342 million barrels of petroleum to produce plastic-based fibres such as polyester, nylon or acrylic. This equates to 1.35 per cent of the globe’s oil consumption. Worse still, these plastic-based fibres are responsible for 73 percent of microfibers pollution in Arctic waters and, according to the Ellen MacArthur Foundation, the plastic packaging on which the fashion industry is largely reliant, is estimated to make up 26 per cent of the total volume of plastics created each year – 72 percent of which is thrown away. However you choose to measure its impact, the numbers are staggering. This session acknowledges these very pressing issues that the fashion industry and academia is currently facing.

We will bring together scholarly experts and practitioners in the areas of plastic use, materiality and design to share their knowledge and experiences with fellow academics and practitioners. Scholarly, conceptual and practitioner papers are welcomed, especially those that address the following themes:

  • Fashion lifecycles vs plastic lifecycles
  • Alternatives to fossil fuel based plastics for fashion and textiles
  • Recycling of plastics
  • How can plastics fit within a sustainable future
  • Solutions to microfibre pollution from textiles
  • A transition to a circular economic environment
  • Single use plastic in fashion retail
  • Consumer intention behind recycled plastic waste product

Introduction: Noorin Khamisani and Karen Ryan, University of Portsmouth

Keynote: Kate Goldsworthy, Professor of Circular Design and Innovation, Co-Director, Centre for Circular Design (CCD), Deputy Director, Business of Fashion Textiles & Technology (BFTT), University of the Arts London (UAL), UK

Short talks by:

  • Dr Claudia Henninger - Presented by: Libby Allen, University of Manchester - Microplastic fibres released during washing of clothing: the unseen side of fashion
  • Lisbeth Løvbak Berg, Consumption Research Norway (SIFO), Oslo Metropolitan University - Textile waste – past, present and future? Synthetics in Norwegian textile waste in Norway 2000-2023
  • Dr Shreyas Patankar, Ocean Wise Conservation Association - Wash cycle design can reduce microplastic emission from home laundry
  • Professor Lisa Macintyre, Heriot-Watt University - Fibre Fragmentation Scale – evaluating a proposed new method for reporting the results of fibre fragmentation testing
  • Dr Victoria Bemmer, University of Portsmouth - Enzymatic deconstruction of polyester textiles
  • Emma Bianco, Pure Earth Collection Ltd - Fashion and the plastic consequences

Session 3: Plastic pollution in the Global South

Chair: Dr Cressida Bowyer - Senior Research Fellow and Deputy Director of Revolution Plastics, University of Portsmouth, UK

Keynote: Esrat Karim, AMAL Foundation - Plastic pollution in Bangladesh

Short talks:

  • Professor Susan Jobling, PISCES - A Systems Approach to Preventing and Eliminating Plastic Pollution in Indonesian Societies
  • Dr Fabrizio Ceschin & Dr Nazli Terzioğlu, Brunel University London - The PISCES Partnership Systemic Cross-Value Chain Design Approach to Tackling Plastic Pollution in Indonesia
  • Cressida Bowyer, University of Portsmouth - Creative solutions to global challenges

Session 4: The Plastics That Made Us

Focusing on the collections and exhibitions programme at the Museum of Design in Plastics (MoDiP), the only UK Accredited museum with a focus on plastics, this presentation will demonstrate how by learning from the past, manufacturers, designers, and consumers of plastics can make better informed choices. MoDiP's purpose is to use its Designated collection to develop understanding of the value of plastics within historical, contemporary, and sustainable contexts. Exploring the museum’s objects that encapsulate a variety of uses and activities - taking into account the clothes we wear, the games we play, and the environments in which we live - this keynote will show how valuable plastics, as a materials group, have been when used appropriately. It will also acknowledge the negative impact the poor use and disposal of plastics materials has on the environment and health.

Roundtable themes: The Care and Curation of Plastics
  • Historical and contemporary cultural perceptions of plastics
  • Curatorial relationships with plastics
  • The seen and unseen uses of plastics
  • Sustainability and the green consumer
  • What can we learn about the future of plastics from their past?
Chair: Professor Deborah Sugg Ryan - Professor of Design History and Theory, Faculty of Creative and Cultural Industries, University of Portsmouth, UK

Keynote: Dr Louise Dennis, Museum of Design in Plastics, Arts University Bournemouth - The Plastics that Made Us: The care and curation of plastics

Round table discussion:
  • Dr Louise Dennis, Museum of Design in Plastics, Arts University Bournemouth
  • Johanna Agerman Ross, Victoria and Albert Museum
  • Dr Helen Peavitt , Science Museum
  • Dr Susan Mossman, Plastics Historical Society

Session 5: Creative Solutions to Global Challenges

Description: Arts-based methods are increasingly being used in academic research to explore lived experience from a grassroots perspective. Artistic methods democratise the research process and disrupt traditional academic hierarchies, often revealing diverse values, and enhancing understanding. When communities collaborate with researchers to find solutions, the results are more local, targeted and contextually sensitive.

This session will include past and present projects in the Global South, methodologies and workshops.

  • Community-based participatory research
  • The range of arts based methods
  • Working in different contexts
  • Practical workshops

Introduction: Dr Cressida Bowyer, University of Portsmouth

Part 1: The Role of community engagement in tackling plastic pollution

Keynote: James Wakibia, Role of individuals in the fight against plastic pollution

Short talks:

  • Alice Darondeau, The SeaCleaners - The SeaCleaners
  • Savannah Schaufler, University of Vienna, Austria - “Plast(dem)ic:” Materiality, Behavior, and COVID-19
  • Luca Marazzi, Thames21 - Plastic litter has no place in the natural environment – key findings from the Plastic Free Mersey Project
  • Victoria Prowse & Helen Powers, Environment Agency, East Midlands Regulated industry Team

Part 2: Participatory arts-based research methods: Examples from the global south

Keynote: Nelmo Newsong (Nelson Munyiri), Artist and Executive Director at Mukuru Youth Initiative - ‘Impact of creative methods in influencing social change’

Short talks:

  • Angela McDermott, Waste Aid - MASIBAMBISANE: Towards a local circular economy in Mpumalanga, South Africa
  • Nicola Hay, University of Portsmouth - IMAGINE PLASTICS; Immersive Experiences - SEEING IS BELIEVING
  • Dr Leanne Proops, University of Portsmouth - Terrestrial Plastic Pollution and its Threat to Livestock and Livelihoods

One of the workshops looked at how puppets have been used to help to explain complex scientific concepts.  Here we made plastic eating enzymes which break the bonds between molecules and return the plastics to their useful building blocks making them easier to reuse again.  Image: Louise Dennis

Session 6: Tackling plastic pollution: Global Change Perspectives

Description: Following on from the landmark resolution reached at the fifth session of the United Nations Environment Assembly in Nairobi, Kenya last year to develop an international legally binding treaty to end plastic pollution, this session will focus on the progress and ambitions of the UN Treaty. What have we learnt from the process so far? What are the challenges and how can these challenges be addressed? What does a successful treaty look like? How can reuse systems help address plastic pollution? This session will include short talks and 2 roundtable discussions.

  • Where are we after INC-2 (Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee session)?
  • How can we build a ‘just’ transition into the treaty?
  • Transparency and disclosure issues in policy development
  • Reuse as an effective policy option
  • Stakeholder perspectives
  • Introduction: Professor Steve Fletcher, University of Portsmouth
Short talks:
  • Jill Bartolotta, Ohio Sea Grant and The Ohio State University - Partners in Plastic Pollution Prevention: Reducing Plastic Pollution through Public and Private Partnerships
  • Valérie Patreau, Polytechnique Montréal (QC, Canada) - Moving away from single-use plastics, public policies effectiveness and consumers’ perceptions
  • Steph Hill, University of Leicester - Sign the manifesto: Examining corporate advocacy efforts in the creation of a mandate to negotiate a legally binding instrument on plastic pollution
  • Dr Tony Walker, Dalhousie University - Government policy responses to curb plastic pollution pre- and post-COVID-19 pandemicKeynote: John Chweya, Kenyan National Waste Pickers - Leveraging global policy to ensure a just transition for waste pickers

Keynote: Von Hernandez, Break Free from Plastic - How can the global plastics treaty serve as a platform for system change?

Panel discussion:

  • Von Hernandez, Break Free from Plastic
  • Zoe Lenkiewicz, Specialist in Global Waste Management
  • Rachel Karasik, Nicholas Institute for Energy, Environment and Sustainability
  • Belen Olmos-Giupponi, University of Portsmouth
  • John Chweya, Kenyan National Waste Pickers

Short talks:
  • Dr James Doherty, Plastic-i Limited - Plastic-i: Enabling solutions to marine plastic pollution with satellite imagery & AI
  • Lauren Weir, Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA) - Agriplastics and the UK Food Supply Chain: How addressing policy failings and market powers is the ultimate solution
  • Dr Noreen O'Meara, University of Surrey, Dr Tiago de Melo Cartaxo, University of Exeter & Professor Rosalind Malcolm, University of Surrey - Plastics pollution and youth communities: shaping ownership through adaptive legal tools

Panel discussion: Time is of the Essence – Negotiating a plastics treaty fit for purpose

  • Chris Dixon, Environmental Investigation Agency
  • Esrat Karim, AMAL Foundation
  • Tony Walker, Dalhousie University
  • Von Hernandez, Break Free From Plastic
  • James Wakibia, Environmental Activist and Photojournalist

As you can see from the number of speakers, this was an inspirational and packed event with so many topics covered. I was so pleased to be a part of it and bring an historical context to the proceedings along with the panellists I was speaking alongside.

I learnt so much about the people living with the worst of the plastics pollution and the projects that are attempting to reduce the production and use of materials, those that are exploring ways to prevent the waste ending up in the wrong place, and those monitoring and / or removing it once it is there. It was good to see the use of artificial intelligence in a positive context too.

It was the kind of conference where there was so much to take in that you need more time to explore the subjects covered. I have no doubt that I will be spending lots of time over the coming weeks and months finding out more about the many speakers and the work they are doing.

Despite the serious subjects being discussed the event was extremely relaxed with a positive outlook. We had reception drinks on HMS Warrior on the first evening and a conference dinner on the second evening.  Conference dinners can be a little stuffy sometimes but this one had a festival vibe with a plant-based BBQ and live music making it much more suitable for networking.

No need to worry.  The cannons on HMS Warrior are made of plastic. Image: Louise Dennis

Louise Dennis, Curator of MoDiP

Wednesday 12 July 2023

Salter 59 kitchen scales

Once again flicking through the trade journals in our collection and recognising an object that we own has enriched our record with a wealth of information.  This time I was looking through an edition of British Plastics from February 1955 and I stumbled across a fabulous article about the manufacture of the Salter 59 kitchen scale.  This article has offered up a firm date and title of the object and some fabulous detail about how exactly the case was made and who did the moulding.

Salter 59 kitchen scales, AIBDC : 0_2337

Here is the article:

Three polystyrene mouldings for domestic scale

A great deal of progress has been made lately in the application of plastics to household appliances, especially where streamlined shape, appearance and ease of cleaning are essential properties. This recent trend is exemplified in the modern domestic scale where a number of new or redesigned models have plastics components; in particular polystyrene finding favour on account of the excellent finish obtainable with this material.

The Salter 59 scale uses high impact polystyrene for its scoop, general purpose for the housing, and general purpose for the dial cover, where the glass-like transparency of the material is of special advantage. The moulding is carried out by E. Elliott, Ltd. Birmingham, and the technique used to mass-produce three items mentioned is of additional interest in that all of the finishing, apart from a cementing operation, is carried out at the press.

The pictures on these pages (come and see the article if you would like to see them all) show the stages in moulding the Salter 59 case. Production is carried out on an 8-oz injection machine, using general-purpose polystyrene in a cream (yellow in our case) shade. Injection is at the centre top of the case where a square aperture is later punched out to accommodate a plunger when the scale is assembled.

Punching the square aperture from the housing after moulding, and, right, a housing placed in the jig for drilling in four positions

The circular aperture in the housing is produced by having a blank face on the mould (which closes on a bevel positioned half-way across this blank face); another interesting feature is the method of producing a slot at the rear of the housing by moulding a projection running on a taper.  Purpose of this slot is to accommodate a knurled wheel which allows the scale to be set (and reset) to zero.  About 55 lifts an hour are achieved, the cycle time being closely integrated with the finishing time. Weight of the shot as it comes of the machine is about 5 ¾ oz.

At the completion of each cycle the operator clips off the sprue and stamps out the square aperture on an electrically heated punch, the temperature of which accurately maintained by a Sunvic control system.  After this the housing is placed in a jig, which is designed both to hold the shape of the moulding as it finally cools and to allow the simultaneous drilling of four 1/16 in holes, two on each side; the purpose of these holes is to accommodate attachment of the inner mechanism of the scale. Drilling is carried out by four drills each operated by an air valve supplied from the normal press air line; a master valve enables the complete system to be switched in and out, and thus cutting out noise when the drills are not actually operating, and thus making the operator's job less fatiguing. The housing then wrapped in tissue and at once packed in a cardboard box for transfer to the Walsall works where the moulding dial cover cemented in.

Production of the dial cover is carried out on a 4-oz machine, using single-impression three-plate tool working with clear transparent material. Gating is at the centre of the cover, and to disguise the tiny scar at this point the mould is blasted over a small circular area, thus producing circle of matt finish in the centre of the cover when moulded. Weight of shot is 1 ½ oz. Removal of the sprue is interesting in that a tapered dowel provides a positive movement of the sprue in the tool, so that  after the stripping plate has cleared the moulding , the sprue can be removed backwards from the gate.

The dial covers are wrapped tissue and packed straight from the press and, as previously stated, sent away for cementing into the housing. Thus the handling of both is reduced to the barest minimum, thereby cutting down the possibility of rejects through accidental damage in the factory.

The scoop of the scale is run alternately with the housing.  A single-impression tool is used and the scoop is gated on the centre under-surface. The colour used is cream, and the weight of the shot is just over 3 ½ oz. The sprue is removed from the operator, who then packs the scoop in similar fashion to the housing. The scoop is embossed to provide graduations in fluid ounces and pints on the inside.

It is so interesting to see the number of different steps needed and the care given to the end product to ensure it arrived at its destination in good order.  I do love finding these fascinating articles.

Louise Dennis, Curator of MoDiP

Wednesday 5 July 2023


Decarbonisation is a theme in our current exhibition, Reuse

Carbon footprints are a measure of the amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases released over the full life cycle of a product. They are notoriously difficult to assess because there are many factors that need to be considered. For example, extraction and processing of the raw materials, manufacturing, packaging and transportation of the product, useage (how long it is used for and whether it is reused) and then finally, recycling and disposal at end-of-life.

This wine bottle is made from 100% recycled PET
from Prevented Ocean Plastic (POP).

Image credit: MoDiP

The environmental impacts associated with plastics are often generally much lower than that of alternative materials such as glass, metal and paper. However, there are several ways by which they can be further decarbonised. Incorporating recycled content, selecting biopolymers instead of plastics derived from fossil fuels or using carbon neutral materials are some potential transformational solutions.

All of these objects are sourced from plant-based materials rather than fossil fuels.
Image credit: MoDiP

In the drive towards becoming net zero, businesses involved with plastics can also try to make efficiencies across their general operations, production processes and supply chains. They might consider switching to low-carbon technologies, using renewable energy sources, adopting closed-loop systems to minimise waste and choosing partners who also prioritise decarbonisation. When areas of unavoidable impact still exist, they might invest in guaranteed carbon offsetting projects, designed to reduce future emissions.


Examples of carbon neutral materials.
Image credit: MoDiP 

Plastics can play an additional role on this journey for all of us through their use in, for example, insulating products to make our buildings more thermally efficient, as components within ‘clean’ energy systems such as solar panels, and within electric vehicle technology and infrastructure. It is important that the material flow is both decarbonised and circular in order to be as sustainable as possible.
Katherine Pell
Collections Officer

Wednesday 28 June 2023

MA Architecture

At the end of last year, an MA Architecture student, Jemma Chapman came in to the museum to explore the use of waste plastics.  We talked about a variety of concepts and objects including Greenbrick's building blocks.

Large blue brick, Greenbrick, AIBDC : 008795.3

Since meeting with Jemma, she has gone on to develop a rich and evolved proposal called
 CoPEar - The Centre of Plastic Education and Research, in which MoDiP became a key component.
Here is the short version of her proposal which will form part of MA Architecture Degree show from 29th June.

We, at the MoDiP, really enjoy supporting student researchers from AUB as well as those who visit us from outside out home organisation.  What makes our jobs really special is seeing the results.

Louise Dennis
Curator of MoDiP

Wednesday 21 June 2023

Turner Museum of Glass

Earlier in the year I had the most fabulous ‘school trip’ to Dundee to visit the Plastic: remaking our world exhibition at V&A Dundee.  To get the most out of the journey I had a look at some other museums that I could visit on the way.  The best fit was another university collection focusing on a single material /material family.  That collection was the Turner Museum of Glass at the University of Sheffield where I met with Emily Green, Interim Head of Special Collections, Heritage & Archives and University Heritage Collections Manager.

The core of the Turner Museum collection is 20th century art glass which was acquired by W.E.S. Turner, Professor of the Department of Glass Technology, through his personal contacts with glass producers and designers in many parts of the world from the 1920s to the 1950s.  Many pieces were made especially for Turner or while he was watched.  In 1943 Professor Turner donated his collection to the University of Sheffield to inspire students and researchers and serve as ‘a counterbalance to the technical activities in which the department is engaged.’  The collection continues to be added to as the museums acquires work from contemporary artists in glass.

Some of the cases showing the collection including some of the early glass.   Image credit: L Dennis

These case show glass from around the world including pieces created by contemporary artists.  Image credit: L Dennis

I wasn’t expecting to see a dress made of glass.  The blue fibreglass dress, handbag, shoes and hat were worn by Helen Nairn Monro on her marriage to Professor Turner in 1943.  The dress was designed and made by Messrs Pettigrew and Stephens, Glasgow and the fabric was created by Glass Fibres Ltd of Firhill, Glasgow.

Fibreglass dress, 1943, made by Messrs Pettigrew and Stephens, Glasgow. Image credit: L Dennis

I really enjoyed my visit to the collection as it reminded me of my time at Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery which has a fabulous collection of early glass, and I am very grateful to Emily for taking the time to talk to me about the collection.

Louise Dennis, Curator of MoDiP

Wednesday 14 June 2023

Design for Disassembly

The concept of Design for Disassembly was first introduced in the early 1990s. It advocates for the environment by recommending products be designed in such a way that they can be easily taken apart at the end of their useful life, with parts then either reused or recycled. In practice this could mean designing with as few materials as possible or using non-permanent fastenings, and these considerations also provide the possibility for self-assembly and repair.

The dental floss container is a good example
of a design that can be easily disassembled.
Image credit: Katherine Pell

A good example is the Wisdom dental floss container (refer image above), which has a single moulded, clam-shell case made from polypropylene (PP), and utilises living hinges to fold into shape. The nylon floss filament is wound onto a bobbin that slots onto an attachment in the centre of the case, whilst the metal cutting blade slots into a grooved depression at the top. Everything is held in place when the snap-jointed case is assembled and all the components can be quickly removed when no longer needed. Interestingly, despite floss containers ably illustrating this sustainable design principle, they are typically not openly promoted for their recycling potential.
Myelin cycle helmet, AIBDC : 009452
Image credit: MoDiP

The labour-intensive process required to separate all of the mixed materials often found within cycling helmets usually results in them being destined for landfill at end-of-life. The Myelin (refer image above), designed by POC, has been specifically engineered to be deconstructed and is made using 50% recycled plastics materials. Built with as few parts as possible, it has a polyester fabric outer shell that covers the expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam liner, adopts interlocking parts that hold each other securely in place (avoiding the use of adhesives) and the chin strap runs through the entire helmet, removing the need for several separate anchored sections.
Bird headphones, AIBDC : 008193
Image credit: MoDiP

Dutch company Gerrard Street, now renamed Repeat Audio, was set up in 2015 to produce a modular headphone with parts that could be easily replaced and upgraded. Offered through a subscription service, the headphones are designed to be sent through the post for easy assembly at home. As individual parts get worn or broken, customers can return the obsolete components for replacement, free of charge, with 85% of this e-waste being either reused or recycled. This circular design model allows the company to maintain full control over production materials because it retains ownership of the product. It also provides the incentive to produce durable headphones in order to maximise income through extending use cycles. MoDiP’s pair (refer image above) are refurbished.
Nike ISPA Link trainers, AIBDC : 009459
Image credit: MoDiP

Using glue and other bonding elements to cement shoe components together typically causes problems for recycling and usually results in the entire shoe being shredded, an energy-intensive process with limited application for the recyclate. Released in 2022, the Nike ISPA Link trainers require no glue in their construction but instead have modular parts that are held together through tension. The single material, thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), sole has a series of pegs that slot into openings in the recycled polyester upper. This enables the shoes to be easily disassembled at end-of-life to replace worn parts and recycle materials.
All of these objects can be viewed in the museum on request.

Katherine Pell
Collections Officer